8bd4This theme may be getting a bit redundant about now. There is just so much that needs to be done in the garden through winter for what will bloom in spring and summer. We plant new fruit trees, and prune mature ones. When we finish planting spring bulbs, we can start planting summer bulbs. Berries, rhubarb and grapes all get planted. With all this going on, it is also time to prune roses.

Like so many fruit trees through the past few centuries, modern roses were bred to maximize production. Instead of big and abundant fruit, they produce big and colorful flowers. Such enhanced production is more than overgrown rose plants can sustain. Pruning eliminates superfluous stems to concentrate resources into fewer but more vigorous stems, and flowers of superior quality.

Pruning also eliminates diseased, damaged, dead and dying stems; which are known as the ‘four Ds’. Foliage falls from the stems naturally through winter, but should be raked and disposed of because it can spread disease to new foliage in the spring. (Dormant fungal spores and bacteria overwinter in fallen foliage.) Foliage that clings to stems after pruning should be plucked away.

Pruning should ideally be done by the time buds begin to swell in late winter. Of course this is not as easy as it sounds in the mild local climate. Buds swell early, and may even start to grow before rose flowers from the previous season finish blooming! Modern ‘carpet’ roses and a few other shrubby types barely go dormant, but fortunately, they do not need such meticulous pruning anyway.

Hybrid tea roses need the most severe pruning, which leaves only three to seven canes approximately two feet high. These canes should ideally be unbranched below where they get pruned, and be spaced somewhat evenly around the center. Stout canes that grew last summer from the base of each plant are best. However, canes below graft unions are suckers that need to be removed.

Floribunda roses are pruned similarly, but can retain a few more canes. Some grandiflora roses are allowed to get significantly taller, with new canes on top of canes from the previous year, which may already be on top of canes from another previous year. It may take a while before they develop replacement canes from the base. Climbing roses likewise retain old canes for a few years.

Tree roses should be pruned as if the upper graft union is at ground level, so that canes should be about two feet high above the graft union. (Although, tree rose canes are usually pruned shorter.) Carpet roses and a few bramble types only need to be pruned low, but cane quality is not so important. They are not grafted, so can not develop suckers.

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7 thoughts on “Attack Roses While They Sleep

  1. I remember being astonished when I moved to Texas and learned that Valentine’s Day is the traditional rose pruning time here. Of course it may vary a bit — usually a bit later, rather than sooner — but still, mid-February is the time to be looking at everything and getting to the task.

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    1. Wow! That is late for us. It is still possible to prune so late, but the buds are already swelling. In coastal Southern California, there is almost no perfect time, since roses are still blooming no mater when they get pruned.

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  2. I love the title you chose! I learned something I didn’t know – about raking the dropped foliage and clearing it away to prevent disease. I need to get busy out there in my flower beds. I have a friend bringing me peonies that she is discarding from her own gardens. She’s just getting too old to mess with much in the flowerbeds. So I need to get going clearing off the dead and spent plants, and do some pruning!

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    1. There are not many specie that those of us here envy, but peonies is one of them. To this day, I can not determine why they do reasonably well in some gardens, and will be so sickly in others that are in the same neighborhood. They do not do very well anywhere here, but my neighbor in town grew them much better than I could. It does not get very cold here. They supposedly grow in the Santa Monica Mountains, but I think that those who do so put way too much work into it just for bragging rights.

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  3. When my grandson passed at 18 days, you can imagine the pain. The next week I shoveled out 30′ x 15′ of landscape rock and planted lots of beautiful roses in memory of my grandson first grandchild, Gavin. It’s the perfect place to sit, reflect, and look at all the beautiful roses in memory of him. I don’t know why I mentioned this…something about your story…thank you Tony for the sweet memories with my coffee this morning. ❤️️

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    1. I am sorry. I know roses are like that though. Technically, they are not friendly plants, and are not the sort of thing that those who are not familiar with would choose to grow. Yet, so many of us do grow them because of how familiar they are.

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      1. Tony, I had a couple of the Artic roses that did really well in pots, and I love color, so I planted at least 12 different varieties of roses. Some didn’t do as well as others. I had 3 Palms in the back on the property line which helped shade the area a little during the hot hours of the summer days. I loved that garden, and it thrived beautifully, with lots of loving care. I would sit among them and just meditate.

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